GeoFRED - Geographical Economic Data | St. Louis Fed


New tutorials that reflect the updated GeoFRED user interface are currently under development. If you would like to view older tutorials that vary from the current interface, you can do so by visiting the old tutorial site.

Units Formulas

The following formulas are used to transform units:

x(t) - x(t-1)

Change from Year Ago
x(t) - x(t-n_obs_per_yr)

Percent Change
((x(t)/x(t-1)) - 1) * 100

Percent Change from Year Ago
((x(t)/x(t-n_obs_per_yr)) - 1) * 100

Compounded Annual Rate of Change
(((x(t)/x(t-1)) ** (n_obs_per_yr)) - 1) * 100

Continuously Compounded Rate of Change
(ln(x(t)) - ln(x(t-1))) * 100

Continuously Compounded Annual Rate of Change
((ln(x(t)) - ln(x(t-1))) * 100) * n_obs_per_yr

Natural Log


'x(t)' is the value of series x at time period t.

'n_obs_per_yr' is the number of observations per year. The number of observations per year differs by frequency:

FrequencyObservations per Year
Daily 260 (no values on weekends)
Annual 1
Monthly 12
Quarterly 4
Bi-Weekly 26
Weekly 52

'ln' represents the natural logarithm.

'**' represents to the power of.